Results Overview

The project planned for outcomes/results in three phases:

  1. Exploration phase, where
    • Review on pre-employment training practices, relevant to the occupation; and
    • Review on aviation security screeners' selection practices and on job competency assessment practices were created and integrated in a comprehensive
    • Report of the exploration phase.
  2. Training and testing phase, where
    • A report on how to enhance the quality of human-machine interaction (especially with regard to image display technology);
    • Structured guidance material for using test tools for pre employment selection; and
    • Structured guidance material for using test tools for screeners' competency assessment was developed and made available.
  3. Final phase
    Following the models proposed at different levels and in different European contexts, including Leonardo da Vinci program project results, and based on the outcomes of the first two phases, a Reference Levels Framework for aviation security screeners was developed, comprising a vertical dimension, containing general descriptors and a horizontal dimension containing qualitative descriptors.

Guidance material and software for pre-employment assessment and certification of aviation security screeners were developed and can be ordered as the VIA Project Package at products.php#order.

NOTE: In 4th quarter 2008 the VIA Project Package has been ordered by more than 20 aviation security organizations and companies from 14 European countries.

All other results of the VIA Project are summarized below, organized by work packages where summary reports as well as detailed reports are available.

Results by Work Packages

Work package 1: Project management setup

A summary of the results of year 1 regarding this work package was made available to the European Commission in 4th quarter 2007. Documents on the following results of year 1 are available upon request to Airport Security Clearance (ASC):

  • Exploration phase management and coordination environment (ASC, Al. Yankov);
  • Expanding the partnership (ASC, Al. Yankov)
  • ICT based work-group platform (MPI, Adrian Schwaninger)

Work package 2: Review on pre-employment training practices

The Report of the Exploration Phase [PDF] contains a summary of the results of year 1 regarding this work package. In addition, a detailed Review on pre-employment training practices [PDF], applied in the states represented in the project, emphasises on:

  • A profile of the pre-employment training market, related to the screener's occupation;
  • Predominant environments of skills and knowledge acquisition
  • Transparency of the process

Work package 3: Review on selection and on job competency assessment practices

The Report of the Exploration Phase [PDF] contains a summary of the results of year 1 regarding this work package. In addition, a detailed Review on selection and on-the-job competency assessment practices [PDF], applied in the states represented in the project, emphasises on:

  • Competencies profile of the occupation, selection sources and procedures
  • Competency assessment procedures and measurement tools
  • Validation and recognition of competencies

Work package 4: On the job competency assessment using specific human-machine interaction measurement tools

The main aim of this workpackage was to investigate how to increase the efficiency in x-ray screening and how to enhance the human-machine interaction in x-ray screening, especially regarding image display technology. The results are summarized in the Report of Work Package 4 [PDF]. In addition, the following detailed reports are available:

  • How to measure x-ray image interpretation competency using tests built into CBT:
    • Koller, S.M., Hardmeier, D., Michel, S., & Schwaninger, A. (2008). Investigating training, transfer, and viewpoint effects resulting from recurrent CBT of x-ray image interpretation. Journal of Transportation Security 1(2), 81-106. [PDF]
    • Koller, S.M., Hardmeier, D., Michel, S., & Schwaninger, A. (2007). Investigating training and transfer effects resulting from recurrent CBT of x-ray image interpretation. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1181-1186), August 1-4, 2007, Nashville, Tennesse, USA. Austin , TX : Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]
  • How to increase the efficiency in x-ray screening using CBT based on the results of studies conducted at different airports:
    • Michel, S., Koller, S., & Bolfing, A. (2008). Relationship between level of detection performance and amount of recurrent computer-based training. Proceedings of the 42st Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, Prague, October 13-16, 2008, 299 - 304. [PDF]
    • Schwaninger, A., Hofer, F., & Wetter, O.E. (2007). Adaptive computer-based training increases on the job performance of x-ray screeners. Proceedings of the 41st Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, Ottawa, October 8-11, 2007. [PDF]
    • Michel, S., de Ruiter, J. C., Hogervorst, Koller, S.M., M., Moerland, R., & Schwaninger, A. (2007). Computer-based training increases efficiency in x-ray image interpretation by aviation security screeners. Proceedings of the 41st Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, Ottawa, October 8-11, 2007. [PDF]
  • How to enhance the quality of human-machine interaction, especially with regard to image display technology:
    • von Bastian, C.C., Schwaninger, A., Michel, S. (2008). Do multi-view x-ray systems improve x-ray image interpretation in airport security screening? Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 3, 165-173. [PDF]
    • Ghylin, K.M., Schwaninger, A., Drury, C.G., Redford, J., Lin, L. & Batta, R. (2008). Screening enhancements: Why don’t they enhance performance? Proceedigs of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting, September 22-26, New York City, NY USA. [PDF]
    • Michel, S., Koller, S.M., Ruh, M., & Schwaninger, A. (2007). Do "image enhancement" functions really enhance x-ray image interpretation? In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1301-1306), August 1-4, 2007, Nashville, Tennesse, USA. Austin , TX : Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]
  • Image-based factors that affect the detection of threat items in x-ray images defined:
    • Bolfing, A., Halbherr, T., & Schwaninger, A. (2008). How image based factors and human factors contribute to threat detection performance in x-ray aviation security screening. HCI and Usability for Education and Work, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5298, 419-438. [PDF]
    • Schwaninger, A., Bolfing, A., Halbherr, T., Helman, S., Belyavin, A., & Hay L. (2008). The impact of image based factors and training on threat detection performance in X-ray screening. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Research in Air Transportation, ICRAT 2008, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, June 1-4, 2008, 317-324. [PDF]
    • Bolfing, A., & Schwaninger, A. (2007). Measurement formulae for image-based factors in x-ray imagery. VICOREG Technical Report, November 26, 2007. [PDF]
    • Schwaninger, A., Bolfing, A., & Michel, S. (2007). A statistical approach for image difficulty estimation in x-ray screening using image measurements. Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, ACM Press , New York , USA. [PDF]

Work package 5: Pre-employment assessment tests

This requires conducting a representative number of tests in order to acquire statistical information in support of the relevant analyses and, as a result, development of guidance material for using test tools in pre-employment selection. A summary of the results of this work package are provided in the Report on Work Package 5 [PDF]. It contains structured guidance material on how to conduct pre-employment assessment including the following elements:

  • Guidance material on initial pre-employment phase, e.g. provide application information, conduct a security check in order to ensure that the applicant has no criminal record.
  • Colour vision test. 8-12% of all males have colour deficiencies, which impairs the interpretation of coloured x-ray images. In x-ray screening, different materials are coded using different colours. Therefore, a colour vision test is an essential element of a pre-employment assessment test package for airport security screeners.
  • X-ray object recognition test in order to examine the abilities needed to detect threat items in x-ray images when they are rotated, superimposed by other objects, or in cluttered bags with high bag complexity. This will also include results of statistical analyses to define norms and calculate reliability and validity.
  • Information oh cognitive tests that should be considered in pre-employment assessment.
  • Information on other aspects such as physical abilities, work ethic, integrity, service orientation.

In addition, the following detailed reports are available:

  • Initial results regarding norms, reliability and validity of the X-Ray Object Recognition Test: Hofer, F., Hardmeier, D., & Schwaninger, A. (2006). Increasing airport security using the X-ray ORT as effective pre-employment assessment tool. Proceedings of the 4th International Aviation Security Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C., USA, November 27 – December 1, 2006, 303-308. [PDF]
  • Hardmeier, D., & Schwaninger, A. (2008). Visual cognition abilities in x-ray screening. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Research in Air Transportation, ICRAT 2008, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, June 1-4, 2008, 311-316. [PDF]

Work package 6: Competency assessment tests

This can be achieved by conducting a representative number of tests in order to acquire statistical information in support of the relevant analyses and as a result development of a guidance material on how to conduct on-the-job competence assessment. A summary of the results of this work package are contained in the Report of Work Package 6 [PDF]. It focusses on the following points:

  • Specification on how to accomplish a reliable, valid and standardized measurement of x-ray image interpretation competency
  • X-ray image interpretation test (available as part of the VIA Project Package at products.php#order)
  • How to conduct reliable measurement of performance on the job using threat image projection (TIP)

The following detailed report on identitiy verification is available as well:

  • Chiller-Glaus, S. D., Schwaninger, A., & Hofer, F. (2007). Identity verification from photographs in travel Documents: The role of display duration and orientation on performance. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting (pp. 1327-1330). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. [PDF]

Work package 7: Reference Levels Framework

Following the models proposed at different levels and in different European contexts, including Leonardo da Vinci program project results, and based on the outcomes of the first two phases, a Reference Levels Framework for aviation security screeners was developed, comprising a vertical dimension, containing general descriptors and a horizontal dimension containing qualitative descriptors. The latest version of the reference levels framework is available here [PDF].

Work package 8: Valorisation activities

The following valorisation activities have been conducted:

  • Dissemination regarding the whole project
    1. Schwaninger, A. (2008). Schwaninger, A. (2008). Recent advances in technology and human factors. Invited lecture, European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC), Workshop on Security Measures for Passenger and Cabin Baggage, Kiev, November 25-27, 2008.
    2. Schwaninger, A. (2008). Presentation of the EU funded VIA Project. Invited lecture at the ECAC and MEDA Workshop on Screeners Certification, Istanbul, Turkey, October 6-8, 2008.
    3. Schwaninger, A. (2008). The main components of the VIA Project. Invited lecture at the Security Forum of the European Civil Aviation Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, September 26, 2008.
    4. Schwaninger, A. (2008). The human aspect of screening. Invited keynote address at the International Forum for Security Screening in Aviation, Geneva, Switzerland, May 5 – 9, 2008.
    5. Schwaninger, A. (2008). Security – Science, research and the future: An integrative approach to increase screening performance. Invited lecture, National Aviation Security Conference, Bodo, Norway, February 5, 2008.
    6. Hofer, F. & Schwaninger, A. (2007). Development of technical and human resources. Conference on the Development of the African Aviation Security Roadmap, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Global Aviation Security Initiative, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 5-7, 2007.
    7. Schwaninger, A. (2007). Screeners: Selection, training and competency assessment. Invited lecture, Workshop on Challenges in Aviation Security, Instituto Nacional de Aviaçao Civil (INAC) Portugal, Policia de Segurança Publica (PSP) Portugal, and European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC/CEAC). Lisbon, October 11-12, 2007.
    8. Schwaninger, A. (2007). Aviation security technology and human factors. Invited Lecture at ESC Toulouse Business School, Aerospace MBA, Toulouse, France, May 10, 2007.
    9. Schwaninger, A. (2007). Training of airport security screeners. Invited presentations at Munich airport, July 23-24, 2007.

  • Dissemination of studies regarding on job occupational tests using specific human-machine interaction measurement tools (Work Package 4)
    1. Bolfing, A., & Schwaninger, A. (2008). The impact of image based factors and training on threat detection performance in x-ray screening – a study involving 5 European airports. Presentation at the 19th International Aviation Security Human Factors Technical Advisory Group Meeting (InterTAG), May 27, 2008, Toulouse, France.
    2. Michel, S., & Schwaninger, A. (2008). The effect of single versus mutli-view display on threat detection. Presentation at the 19th International Aviation Security Human Factors Technical Advisory Group Meeting (InterTAG), May 28, 2008, Toulouse, France.
    3. Schwaninger, A. (2007). Results of scientific studies on x-ray image interpretation. Invited lecture, National Security Meeting (Nationaler Sicherheitsaussschuss), German Ministry of Interior, Berlin, Germany, December 4, 2007.
    4. Schwaninger, A. (2007). Threat Image Projection Technology. Invited lecture at the European Commission Taiex Instrument, ECAC Aviation Security Assistance Program, Multilateral Workshop on Security Technology, June 28-29, 2007, Bucharest, Romania.
    5. Schwaninger, A. (2007). A statistical approach for image difficulty estimation in x-ray screening. Presentation at the European Civil Aviation Conference, 36th Meeting of the Task Force for the Study of Technical Aspects of Security Problems, Bucharest, June 25 – 27, 2007. Reference: Schwaninger, Michel, & Bolfing (2007) [PDF]
    6. Schwaninger, A., Michel, S., & Bolfing, A. (2007). A statistical approach for image difficulty estimation in x-ray screening using image measurements. Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, July 25-27, 2007, ACM Press, New York, USA. [PDF]
    7. Koller, S.M., Hardmeier, D., Michel, S., & Schwaninger, A. (2007). Investigating training and transfer effects resulting from recurrent CBT of x-ray image interpretation. In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1181-1186), August 1-4, 2007, Nashville, Tennesse, USA. Austin , TX : Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]
    8. Michel, S., Koller, S.M., Ruh, M., & Schwaninger, A. (2007). Do "image enhancement" functions really enhance x-ray image interpretation? In D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1301-1306), August 1-4, 2007, Nashville, Tennesse, USA. Austin , TX : Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]
    9. Schwaninger, A., Wetter, O.E., & Hofer, F. (in press). Adaptive computer-based training increases on the job performance of x-ray screeners. Proceedings of the 41st Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, Ottawa, October 8-11, 2007.
    10. Michel, S., Koller, S.M., & Schwaninger, A. (in press). Increasing Efficiency in X-Ray Screening Using Computer-Based Training. Proceedings of the 41st Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, Ottawa, October 8-11, 2007.

  • Dissemination regarding pre-employment assessment (Work Package 5)
    1. Hardmeier, D., & Schwaninger, A. (2008). Visual cognition abilities in x-ray screening. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Research in Air Transportation, ICRAT 2008, Fairfax, Virginia, USA, June 1-4, 2008, 311-316. [PDF]
    2. Hofer, F., Hardmeier, D., & Schwaninger, A. (2006). Increasing airport security using the X-ray ORT as effective pre-employment assessment tool. Proceedings of the 4th International Aviation Security Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C., USA, November 27 – December 1, 2006, 303-308. [PDF]

  • Dissemination regarding certification and competency assessment (Work Package 6)
    1. Koller, S. (2008). Certification of x-ray image interpretation competency using computer-based tests and/or threat image projection data. Invited lecture at the ECAC and MEDA Workshop on Screeners Certification, Istanbul, Turkey, October 6-8, 2008.
    2. Schwaninger, A. (2008). Certification of x-ray image interpretation competency using computer-based tests and/or threat image projection data. Invited lecture at the European Commission Taiex Instrument, ECAC Aviation Security Assistance Program, Multilateral Workshop on screeners‘ certification, European Aviation Security Institute (EASTI), Brussels, May 5-7, 2008.

 


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